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        Water (H2O, HOH) is the most abundant molecule on Earth's surface, composing 70-75% of the Earth's surface as liquid and solid state in addition to being found in the atmosphere as a vapor. It is in dynamic equilibrium between the liquid and vapor states at standard temperature and pressure. At room temperature, it is a nearly colorless, tasteless, and odorless liquid. Many substances dissolve in water and it is commonly referred to as the universal solvent. Because of this, water in nature and in use is rarely clean, and may have some properties different than those in the laboratory. However, there are many compounds that are essentially, if not completely, insoluble in water. Water is the only common, pure substance found naturally in all three states of matterfor other substances, see Chemical properties


    Systematic Name:   Other Name:
Water Aqua
Hydrogen oxide
Hydrogen hydroxide
Hydric acid
Dihydrogen monoxide
Hydrohydroxic acid
μ-Oxido dihydrogen
Molecular Formula Molar mass
HOH or H2O 18.01524 gmol−1
Appearance C.A.S. number
Transparent, almost colorless liquid with
a slight hint of blue
Melting Point Boiling Point
0 C, 32 F 100 C, 212 F
Triple point Critical point
273.16 K, 611.73 Pa 647 K, 22.1 mpa
Specific heat capacity (gas) Specific heat capacity (liquid)
cp=1970 Jkg−1K−1 @ 300 K
cv=1510 Jkg1K−1 @ 300 K
4186 Jkg−1K−1
Specific heat capacity (solid) Viscosity
2060 Jkg−1K−1 0.001 Pas at 20 C
Acidity (pKa) Basicity (pKb)
15.74 15.74

There are generally two classified groups water field:

  • Surface Water

  • Ground Water

Surface water is found in a river, lake or other surface impoundment. Surface  water is usually not very high in mineral content and some time is  called Soft Water. Surface water have many different contaminants, like industrial wastes ,animal wastes, pesticides, insecticides, industrial wastes, algae and many other organic materials. Ground water is that which is trapped beneath the ground. Ground water may contain any or all of the contaminants found in surface water as well as the dissolved  minerals it pickup during its long stay underground

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